SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
January 31, 2020
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number: 001-37867
Dell Technologies Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Dell Way, Round Rock, Texas 78682
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class C Common Stock, par value of $0.01 per share
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No þ
As of August 2, 2019, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the shares of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $12.0 billion (based on the closing price of $52.41 per share of Class C Common Stock reported on the New York Stock Exchange on that date).
As of March 20, 2020, there were 739,473,681 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding, consisting of 253,249,641 outstanding shares of Class C Common Stock, 384,538,823 outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock, and 101,685,217 outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
The information required by Part III of this report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated by reference from the registrant’s proxy statement relating to its annual meeting of stockholders to be held in 2020. The proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The words “may,” “will,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “aim,” “seek,” and similar expressions as they relate to us or our management are intended to identify these forward-looking statements. All statements by us regarding our expected financial position, revenues, cash flows and other operating results, business strategy, legal proceedings, and similar matters are forward-looking statements. Our expectations expressed or implied in these forward-looking statements may not turn out to be correct. Our results could be materially different from our expectations because of various risks, including the risks discussed in “Part I — Item 1A — Risk Factors” and in our other periodic and current reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date as of which such statement is made, and, except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement after the date as of which such statement was made, whether to reflect changes in circumstances or our expectations, the occurrence of unanticipated events, or otherwise.
DELL TECHNOLOGIES INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this report to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” and “Dell Technologies” mean Dell Technologies Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, references to “Dell” mean Dell Inc. and Dell Inc.’s consolidated subsidiaries, and references to “EMC” mean EMC Corporation and EMC Corporation’s consolidated subsidiaries.
Our fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period ending on the Friday nearest January 31. We refer to our fiscal years ended January 31, 2020, February 1, 2019, and February 2, 2018 as “Fiscal 2020,” “Fiscal 2019,” and “Fiscal 2018,” respectively. Fiscal 2020, Fiscal 2019 and Fiscal 2018 included 52 weeks.
ITEM 1 — BUSINESS
Dell Technologies is a leading global end-to-end technology provider, with a comprehensive portfolio of IT hardware, software and services solutions spanning both traditional infrastructure and emerging, multi-cloud technologies that enable our customers to build their digital future and transform how they work and live. We operate globally across key functional areas such as technology and product development, marketing, go-to-market and global services, and are supported by Dell Financial Services. We continue to seamlessly deliver differentiated and holistic IT solutions to our customers, which has driven significant revenue growth and share gains.
Dell Technologies operates with significant scale and an unmatched breadth of complementary offerings. Digital transformation has become essential to all businesses, and we have expanded our portfolio to include holistic solutions that enable our customers to drive their ongoing digital transformation initiatives. Dell Technologies’ integrated solutions help customers modernize their IT infrastructure, manage and operate in a multi-cloud world, address workforce transformation, and provide critical security solutions to protect against the ever increasing and evolving security threats. With our extensive portfolio and our commitment to innovation, we have the ability to offer secure, integrated solutions that extend from the edge to the core to the cloud, and we are at the forefront of the software-defined and cloud native infrastructure era. Our end-to-end portfolio is supported by a differentiated go-to-market engine, which includes a 43,000-person sales force, a global network of channel partners, and a world-class supply chain that together drive revenue growth and operating efficiencies.
Products and Services
We design, develop, manufacture, market, sell, and support a wide range of products and services. We are organized into the following business units, which are our reportable segments: Infrastructure Solutions Group; Client Solutions Group; and VMware.
Infrastructure Solutions Group (“ISG”) — ISG enables the digital transformation of our customers through our trusted multi-cloud and big data solutions, which are built upon a modern data center infrastructure. Our comprehensive portfolio of advanced storage solutions includes traditional storage solutions as well as next-generation storage solutions (such as all-flash arrays, scale-out file, object platforms and software-defined solutions). We have simplified our storage portfolio to ensure that we deliver the technology needed for our customers’ digital transformation. Our server portfolio includes high-performance rack, blade, tower, and hyperscale servers, optimized for artificial intelligence and machine learning workloads. Our networking portfolio helps our business customers transform and modernize their infrastructure, mobilize and enrich end-user experiences, and accelerate business applications and processes. Our strengths in server, storage, and virtualization software solutions enable us to offer leading converged and hyper-converged solutions, allowing our customers to accelerate their IT transformation by acquiring scalable integrated IT solutions instead of building and assembling their own IT platforms. ISG also offers attached software, peripherals, and services, including support and deployment, configuration, and extended warranty services.
We recently unveiled the Dell Technologies Cloud, a new set of cloud infrastructure solutions to make hybrid cloud environments simpler to deploy and manage. The Dell Technologies Cloud portfolio consists of the new Dell Technologies Cloud Platforms and the new Data Center-as-a-Service offering referred to as VMware Cloud on Dell EMC. These solutions enable a flexible range of IT and management options with tight integration and a single vendor experience for purchasing, deployment, services, and financing, giving customers more control as the operational hub of their hybrid clouds.
Approximately half of ISG revenue is generated by sales to customers in the Americas, with the remaining portion derived from sales to customers in the Europe, Middle East, and Africa region (“EMEA”) and the Asia-Pacific and Japan region (“APJ”).
Client Solutions Group (“CSG”) — CSG includes branded hardware (such as desktops, workstations, and notebooks) and branded peripherals (such as displays and projectors), as well as third-party software and peripherals. Our computing devices are designed with our commercial and consumer customers’ needs in mind, and we seek to optimize performance, reliability, manageability, design, and security. In addition to our traditional hardware business, we have a portfolio of thin client offerings that we believe will allow us to benefit from the growth trends in cloud computing. For our customers that are seeking to simplify client lifecycle management, Dell PC as a Service offering combines hardware, software, lifecycle services, and financing into one all-encompassing solution that provides predictable pricing per seat per month through Dell Financial Services. CSG also offers attached software, peripherals, and services, including support and deployment, configuration, and extended warranty services.
Approximately half of CSG revenue is generated by sales to customers in the Americas, with the remaining portion derived from sales to customers in EMEA and APJ.
VMware — The VMware reportable segment (“VMware”) reflects the operations of VMware, Inc. (NYSE: VMW) within Dell Technologies. VMware works with customers in the areas of hybrid and multi-cloud, modern applications, networking, security, and digital workspaces, helping customers manage their IT resources across private clouds and complex multi-cloud, multi-device environments. VMware’s portfolio supports and addresses the key IT priorities of customers: accelerating their cloud journey, modernizing their applications, empowering digital workspaces, transforming networking, and embracing intrinsic security. VMware enables its customers to digitally transform their operations as they ready their applications, infrastructure, and employees for constantly evolving business needs.
During the third quarter of Fiscal 2020, VMware, Inc. completed the acquisition of Carbon Black, Inc. (“Carbon Black”), a developer of cloud-native endpoint protection.
On December 30, 2019, VMware, Inc. completed its acquisition of Pivotal Software, Inc. (“Pivotal”). Before the transaction, Pivotal was a majority-owned subsidiary of Dell Technologies through EMC and VMware, Inc. Pivotal provides a leading cloud-native platform that makes software development and IT operations a strategic advantage for customers. Pivotal’s cloud-native platform, Pivotal Cloud Foundry, accelerates and streamlines software development by reducing the complexity of building, deploying, and operating new cloud-native applications, and modernizing legacy applications. With the acquisition, which aligns key software assets, VMware, Inc. will drive and build on a comprehensive development platform with Kubernetes.
Under the terms of the transaction, each outstanding share of Pivotal’s Class A common stock (other than shares held by Pivotal stockholders who properly exercised their appraisal rights under Delaware law) was converted into the right to receive $15.00 in cash, and each outstanding share of Pivotal’s Class B common stock was converted into the right to receive 0.0550 of a share of Class B common stock of VMware, Inc. Dell Technologies, which held all outstanding shares of Pivotal’s Class B common stock, received approximately 7.2 million shares of Class B common stock of VMware, Inc. in the transaction.
The purchase of the controlling interest in Pivotal from Dell Technologies was accounted for as a transaction between entities under common control. Assets and liabilities of Pivotal remained at their historical carrying amounts on the date of the transaction, with no new goodwill being recognized. This transaction required retrospective combination of the VMware, Inc. and Pivotal entities for all periods presented, as if the combination had been in effect since the inception of common control on the date of the EMC merger transaction in September 2016.
Effective as of the transaction date, Dell Technologies reports Pivotal results within the VMware reportable segment, and the historical segment results have been recast to reflect this change. Pivotal results were previously reported within other businesses. See Note 19 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report for the recast of segment results.
Approximately half of VMware revenue is generated by sales to customers in the United States.
Our other businesses, described below, consist of product and service offerings of Secureworks, Virtustream, Boomi, and RSA Security, each of which is majority-owned by Dell Technologies. These businesses are not classified as reportable segments, either individually or collectively, as the results of the businesses are not material to our overall results and the businesses do not meet the criteria for reportable segments.
Secureworks (NASDAQ: SCWX) is a leading global provider of intelligence-driven information security solutions singularly focused on protecting its clients from cyberattacks. The solutions offered by Secureworks enable organizations of varying size and complexity to fortify their cyber defenses to prevent security breaches, detect malicious activity in near real time, prioritize and respond rapidly to security incidents and predict emerging threats.
Virtustream offers cloud software and infrastructure-as-a-service solutions that enable customers to migrate, run, and manage mission-critical applications in cloud-based IT environments. Beginning in the first quarter of Fiscal 2019, Virtustream results are reported within other businesses, rather than within ISG. This change in reporting structure did not impact our previously reported consolidated financial results, but our prior period segment results have been recast to reflect the change.
Boomi specializes in cloud-based integration, connecting information between existing on-premise and cloud-based applications to ensure business processes are optimized, data is accurate and workflow is reliable.
RSA Security provides essential cybersecurity solutions engineered to enable organizations to detect, investigate, and respond to advanced attacks, confirm and manage identities, and, ultimately, help reduce IP theft, fraud, and cybercrime. In February 2020, Dell Technologies announced its entry into a definitive agreement to sell RSA Security to a consortium of investors in an all-cash transaction for approximately $2.075 billion, subject to certain closing adjustments. The transaction is intended to further simplify our product portfolio and corporate structure.
We believe the collaboration, innovation, and coordination of the operations and strategies across all segments of our business, as well as our differentiated go-to-market model, will continue to drive revenue synergies. Through our coordinated research and development activities, we are able to jointly engineer leading innovative solutions that incorporate the distinct set of hardware, software, and services across all segments of our business.
See Note 19 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report for more information about our reportable segments.
See “Part II — Item 7 — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Results of Operations — Business Unit Results” for a discussion of our reportable segment operating results.
Dell Financial Services
Dell Financial Services and its affiliates (“DFS”) support our businesses by offering and arranging various financing options and services for our customers in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. DFS originates, collects, and services customer receivables primarily related to the purchase of our product, software, and service solutions. We also arrange financing for some of our customers in various countries where DFS does not currently operate as a captive. DFS further strengthens our customer relationships through its flexible consumption models, which enable us to offer our customers the option to pay over time and, in certain cases, based on utilization, providing them with financial flexibility to meet their changing technological requirements. The results of these operations are allocated to our segments based on the underlying product or service financed. For additional information about our financing arrangements, see Note 4 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report.
Research and Development
We focus on developing scalable technology solutions that incorporate highly desirable features and capabilities at competitive prices. We employ a collaborative approach to product design and development in which our engineers, with direct customer input, design innovative solutions and work with a global network of technology companies to architect new system designs, influence the direction of future development, and integrate new technologies into our products. We manage our research and development (“R&D”) spending by targeting those innovations and products that we believe are most valuable to our customers and by relying on the capabilities of our strategic relationships. Through this collaborative, customer-focused approach, we strive to deliver new and relevant products to the market quickly and efficiently. Additionally, from time to time, we make strategic investments in publicly-traded and privately-held companies that develop software, hardware, and other technologies or provide services supporting our technologies.
VMware represents a significant portion of our R&D activities and has assembled an experienced group of developers with expertise in software-defined data centers, hybrid and multiple public clouds, the modernization, migration and management of applications, networking, security, and digital workspaces. VMware also has strong ties to leading academic institutions around the world and invests in joint research with academia. Product development efforts are prioritized through a combination of engineering-driven innovation and customer- and market-driven feedback.
Dell Technologies has a global R&D presence, with total R&D expenses of $5.0 billion, $4.6 billion, and $4.4 billion, for Fiscal 2020, Fiscal 2019, and Fiscal 2018, respectively. These investments reflect our commitment to R&D activities that ultimately support our mission: to help our customers build their digital future and to transform IT.
Manufacturing and Materials
We own manufacturing facilities located in the United States, Malaysia, China, Brazil, India, Poland, and Ireland. See “Item 2 — Properties” for information about our manufacturing and distribution facilities.
We also utilize contract manufacturers throughout the world to manufacture or assemble our products under the Dell Technologies brand as part of our strategy to enhance our variable cost structure and to achieve our goals of generating cost efficiencies, delivering products faster, better serving our customers, and enhancing our world-class supply chain.
Our manufacturing process consists of assembly, software installation, functional testing, and quality control. We conduct operations utilizing a formal, documented quality management system to ensure that our products and services satisfy customer needs and expectations. Testing and quality control are also applied to components, parts, sub-assemblies, and systems obtained from third-party suppliers.
Our quality management system is maintained through the testing of components, sub-assemblies, software, and systems at various stages in the manufacturing process. Quality control procedures also include a burn-in period for completed units after assembly, ongoing production reliability audits, failure tracking for early identification of production and component problems, and information from customers obtained through services and support programs. This system is certified to the ISO 9001 International Standard that includes most of our global sites that design, manufacture, and service our products.
Our order fulfillment, manufacturing, and test facilities in Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Ireland are certified to the ISO 14001 International Standard for environmental management systems and also have achieved OHSAS 18001 certification, an international standard for facilities with world-class safety and health management systems. These internationally-recognized endorsements of ongoing quality and environmental management are among the highest levels of certifications available. We also have implemented Lean Six Sigma and 7S (Customer, Safety, Quality, Delivery, Cost, Team, and Green) methodologies to ensure that the quality of our designs, manufacturing, test processes, and supplier relationships are continually improved.
We maintain a robust Supplier Code of Conduct, actively manage recycling processes for our returned products, and are certified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a Smartway Transport Partner.
We purchase materials, supplies, product components, and products from a large number of qualified suppliers. In some cases, where multiple sources of supply are not available, we rely on a single source or a limited number of sources of supply if we believe it is advantageous to do so because of performance, quality, support, delivery, capacity, or price considerations. We believe that any disruption that may occur because of our dependence on single- or limited-source vendors would not disproportionately disadvantage us relative to our competitors. See “Item 1A — Risk Factors — Risk Factors Relating to Our Business and Our Industry — Reliance on vendors for products and components, many of which are single-source or limited-source suppliers, could harm Dell Technologies’ business by adversely affecting product availability, delivery, reliability, and cost” for information about the risks associated with Dell Technologies’ use of single- or limited-source suppliers.
Our global corporate headquarters is located in Round Rock, Texas. We have operations and conduct business in many countries located in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and other geographic regions. To increase our global presence, we continue to focus on emerging markets outside of the United States, Western Europe, Canada, and Japan. We continue to view these geographical markets, which include the vast majority of the world’s population, as a long-term growth opportunity. Accordingly, we pursue the development of technology solutions that meet the needs of these markets. Our expansion in emerging markets creates additional complexity in coordinating the design, development, procurement, manufacturing, distribution, and support of our product and services offerings. For information about the amount of net revenue we generated from our operations outside of the United States during the last three fiscal years, see Note 19 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report.
We operate in an industry in which there are rapid technological advances in hardware, software, and services offerings. We face ongoing product and price competition in all areas of our business, including from both branded and generic competitors. We compete based on our ability to offer customers competitive, scalable, and integrated solutions that provide the most current and desired product and services features at a competitive price. We closely monitor market pricing and solutions trends, including the effect of foreign exchange rate movements, in an effort to provide the best value for our customers. We believe that our strong relationships with our customers and channel partners allow us to respond quickly to changing customer needs and other macroeconomic factors.
The markets in which we compete are comprised of large and small companies across all areas of our business. We believe that new businesses will continue to enter these markets and develop technologies that, if commercialized, may compete with our products and services. Moreover, current competitors may enter into new strategic relationships with new or existing competitors, which may further increase the competitive pressures. See “Item 1A — Risk Factors — Risk Factors Relating to Our Business and Our Industry” for information about our competitive risks.
Sales and Marketing
We operate a diversified business model, with the majority of our revenue and operating income derived from commercial clients that consist of large enterprises, small and medium-sized businesses, and public sector customers. We sell products and services directly to customers and through other sales channels, such as value-added resellers, system integrators, distributors, and retailers. During Fiscal 2020, our other sales channels contributed over 50% of our net revenue.
Our customers include large global and national corporate businesses, public institutions that include government, educational institutions, healthcare organizations, and law enforcement agencies, small and medium-sized businesses, and consumers. Our sales efforts are organized around the evolving needs of our customers, and our marketing initiatives reflect this focus. We believe that our unified global sales and marketing team creates a sales organization that is more customer-focused, collaborative, and innovative. Our go-to-market strategy includes a direct business model, as well as channel distribution. Our direct business model emphasizes direct communication with customers, thereby allowing us to refine our products and marketing programs for specific customers groups, and we continue to pursue this strategy.
In addition to our direct business model, we rely on our network of channel partners to sell our products and services, enabling us to efficiently serve a greater number of customers. Sales through channel partners have grown over the past several years, particularly as a result of the EMC merger transaction and expansion in the business. The Dell Technologies partner program contributes to growth in channel sales by providing appropriate incentives for revenue generation. We also provide our channel partners access to third-party financing to help manage their working capital. We believe that building long-term relationships with our channel partners enhances our ability to deliver an excellent customer experience.
We market our products and services to small and medium-sized businesses and consumers through various advertising media. To react quickly to our customers’ needs, we track our Net Promoter Score, a customer loyalty metric that is widely used across various industries. We also engage with customers through our social media communities on www.delltechnologies.com and in external social media channels.
For large business and institutional customers, we maintain a field sales force throughout the world. Dedicated account teams, which include technical sales specialists, form long-term relationships to provide our largest customers with a single source of assistance, develop tailored solutions for these customers, position the capabilities of Dell Technologies, and provide us with customer feedback. For these customers, we offer several programs designed to provide single points of contact and accountability with dedicated account managers, special pricing, and consistent service and support programs. We also maintain specific sales and marketing programs targeting federal, state, and local governmental agencies, as well as healthcare and educational customers.
Patents, Trademarks, and Licenses
As of January 31, 2020, we held a worldwide portfolio of 19,002 patents and had an additional 10,025 patent applications pending. Of those intellectual property rights, VMware, Inc. held 4,140 patents and had an additional 3,095 patent applications pending. We also hold licenses to use numerous third-party patents. To replace expiring patents, we obtain new patents through our ongoing research and development activities. The inventions claimed in our patents and patent applications cover aspects of our current and possible future computer system and software products, manufacturing processes, and related technologies. Our product and process patents may establish barriers to entry. Although we use our patented inventions and also license them to others, we are not substantially dependent on any single patent or group of related patents. We have entered into a variety of intellectual property licensing and cross-licensing agreements and software licensing agreements with other companies. We anticipate that our worldwide patent portfolio will continue to be of value in negotiating intellectual property rights with others in the industry.
We have obtained U.S. federal trademark registration for Dell Technologies, Dell word mark and logo mark, and the VMware word and logo mark. We have pending applications to register Dell EMC word marks. As of January 31, 2020, we owned registrations for approximately 314 of our other trademarks in the United States and had pending applications for registration of approximately 75 other trademarks. We believe that Dell Technologies, DELL, Dell EMC, VMware, Alienware, RSA Security, Secureworks, Pivotal, and Virtustream word marks and logo marks in the United States are material to our operations. As of January 31, 2020, we also had applied for, or obtained registration of, the DELL word mark and several other marks in approximately 186 other countries.
From time to time, other companies and individuals assert exclusive patent, copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property rights to technologies or marks that are alleged to be relevant to the technology industry or our business. We evaluate each claim relating to our products and, if appropriate, seek a license to use the protected technology. The licensing agreements generally do not require the licensor to assist us in duplicating the licensor’s patented technology, nor do the agreements protect us from trade secret, copyright, or other violations by us or our suppliers in developing or selling the licensed products. Unless otherwise noted, trademarks appearing in this report are owned by us. We disclaim proprietary interest in the marks and names of others. Net Promoter Score is a trademark of Satmetrix Systems, Inc., Bain & Company, Inc., and Fred Reichheld.
Our business is subject to regulation by various U.S. federal and state governmental agencies and other governmental agencies. Such regulation includes the activities of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission; the anti-trust regulatory activities of the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the European Union; the consumer protection laws and financial services regulation of the U.S. Federal Trade Commission and various state governmental agencies; the export regulatory activities of the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Department of the Treasury; the import regulatory activities of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection; the product safety regulatory activities of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission and the U.S. Department of Transportation; the health information privacy and security requirements of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; and the environmental, employment and labor, and other regulatory activities of a variety of governmental authorities in each of the countries in which we conduct business. We were not assessed any material environmental fines, nor did we have any material environmental remediation or other environmental costs, during Fiscal 2020.
Social Impact and Sustainability
Dell is committed to driving human progress by putting our technology and expertise to work where it can do the most good for people and the planet. As highlighted in our most recent Corporate Social Responsibility Report, we:
Used 100 million pounds of sustainable materials in our products
Helped 16 million people grow and thrive through the use of our technology and expertise
Recovered 2 billion pounds of used electronics for reuse, remanufacturing, or recycling
Reduced the energy intensity of our product portfolio by 64%
Volunteered 5 million hours of team member service in support of community groups
Achieved 89% team member satisfaction at Dell Technologies
Reached a 60% use rate for flexible work options among global team members
For further details on our achievements, see our most recent Corporate Responsibility Report, which is available at legacyofgood.dell.com.
Dell Technologies launched its Social Impact Plan for 2030 (the “2030 Plan”) after its success in achieving prior social impact and sustainability goals. Our goals under the new plan represent an extension of our purpose as a Company — to create technologies that drive human progress. We will use these goals to build our social impact strategies over the next decade. The 2030 Plan has four critical areas of focus:
Advancing Sustainability — We believe we have a responsibility to protect and enrich our planet together with our customers, suppliers and communities. Dell Technologies will continue working across our business ecosystem, valuing natural resources, and minimizing our impact. With the power of our global supply chain, Dell Technologies has the scale and responsibility to drive the highest standards of sustainability and ethical practices.
Cultivating Inclusion — We view diversity and inclusion as a business imperative that will enable us to build and empower our future workforce. It is essential that our workforce be fully representative of the diversity in our global customer base. Diversity of leadership increases innovation and ensures company decisions reflect a wide variety of perspectives.
Transforming Lives — We believe our scale, support, and the innovative application of our portfolio can play an important role in addressing complex societal challenges, including improving health, education, and economic opportunities for the underserved. We endeavor to harness the power of technology to create a future that is capable of fully realizing human potential.
Upholding Ethics and Privacy — Ethics and privacy play a critical role in establishing a strong foundation for positive social impact. We will continue to invest in our advanced privacy governance and risk-management technology. And we will continue to select, evaluate, and do business with third parties who share our level of dedication to privacy.
The Dell Technologies Social Impact Plan for 2030 is available at https://corporate.delltechnologies.com/en-us/social-impact.htm.
Product backlog represents the value of unfulfilled manufacturing orders. Our business model generally gives us the ability to optimize product backlog at any point in time, for example, expediting shipping or prioritizing customer orders toward products that have shorter lead times. Because product backlog at any point in time may not result in the generation of any predictable amount of net revenue in any subsequent period, we do not believe product backlog to be a meaningful indicator of future net revenue. Product backlog is included as a component of remaining performance obligation to the extent we determine that the manufacturing orders are non-cancelable.
As of January 31, 2020, we had approximately 165,000 total full-time employees, approximately 31,000 of whom were employees of VMware, Inc. In comparison, as of February 1, 2019, we had approximately 157,000 total full-time employees, approximately 24,000 of whom were employees of VMware, Inc. As of January 31, 2020, approximately 37% of our full-time employees were located in the United States and approximately 63% were located in other countries.
We are a holding company that conducts our operations through subsidiaries.
We were incorporated in the state of Delaware on January 31, 2013 under the name Denali Holding Inc. in connection with Dell’s going-private transaction, which was completed in October 2013. We changed our name to Dell Technologies Inc. on August 25, 2016. The mailing address of our principal executive offices is One Dell Way, Round Rock, Texas 78682. Our telephone number is 1-800-289-3355.
Our website address is www.delltechnologies.com. We make available free of charge through our website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The contents of our website referred to above and the contents of any other website we refer to herein are not a part of this annual report on Form 10-K.
Class V Transaction
On December 28, 2018, we completed a transaction (“Class V transaction”) in which we paid $14.0 billion in cash and issued 149,387,617 shares of our Class C Common Stock to holders of our Class V Common Stock in exchange for all outstanding shares of Class V Common Stock. The non-cash consideration portion of the Class V transaction totaled $6.9 billion. As a result of the Class V transaction, the tracking stock feature of Dell Technologies’ capital structure was terminated. The Class C Common Stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange.
The aggregate cash consideration and the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the Class V transaction were funded with proceeds of $3.67 billion from new term loans under our senior secured credit facilities, proceeds of a margin loan financing in an aggregate principal amount of $1.35 billion, proceeds of Dell Technologies’ pro-rata portion, in the amount of $8.87 billion, of a special $11 billion cash dividend paid by VMware, Inc. in connection with the Class V transaction, and cash on hand at Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries. See Note 6 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report for information about the debt we incurred to finance the Class V transaction.
Information about our Executive Officers
The following table sets forth, as of February 25, 2020, information about our executive officers, who are appointed by our board of directors.
Michael S. Dell
Chief Executive Officer
Jeffrey W. Clarke
Chief Operating Officer and Vice Chairman
Chief Marketing Officer
Howard D. Elias
President, Services and Digital
Steven H. Price
Chief Human Resources Officer
Karen H. Quintos
Chief Customer Officer
Chief Operating Executive, Dell Technologies and President, Virtustream
Richard J. Rothberg
William F. Scannell
President, Global Sales and Customer Operations
Thomas W. Sweet
Chief Financial Officer
Michael S. Dell — Mr. Dell serves as Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Dell Technologies. Mr. Dell served as Chief Executive Officer of Dell Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dell Technologies, from 1984 until July 2004 and resumed that role in January 2007. In 1998, Mr. Dell formed MSD Capital, L.P. for the purpose of managing his and his family’s investments, and, in 1999, he and his wife established the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation to provide philanthropic support to a variety of global causes. He is an honorary member of the Foundation Board of the World Economic Forum and is an executive committee member of the International Business Council. He serves as a member of the Technology CEO Council and is a member of the U.S. Business Council and the Business Roundtable. He also serves on the advisory board of Tsinghua University’s School of Economics and Management in Beijing, China, on the governing board of the Indian School of Business in Hyderabad, India, and on the board of Catalyst, Inc., a non-profit organization that promotes inclusive workplaces for women. Mr. Dell is also Chairman of the Board of VMware, Inc. and Non-Executive Chairman of SecureWorks Corp. Mr. Dell was a board member of Pivotal Software, Inc. from September 2016 until it was acquired by VMware, Inc. in December 2019.
Jeffrey W. Clarke — Mr. Clarke serves as Chief Operating Officer and Vice Chairman of Dell Technologies, responsible for running day-to-day business operations, shaping the Company’s strategic agenda, and aligning priorities across the Dell Technologies executive leadership team. Mr. Clarke oversees the Company’s operations, including its global manufacturing, procurement, and supply chain activities. Mr. Clarke has served as Chief Operating Officer since December 2019 and Vice Chairman, Products and Operations since September 2017, before which he served as Vice Chairman and President, Operations and Client Solutions with Dell Technologies and, previously, Dell, since January 2009. In these roles, Mr. Clarke has been responsible for global manufacturing, procurement, and supply chain activities worldwide, as well as the engineering, design, and development of servers, storage and networking products, as well as engineering, design, development and sales of computer desktops, notebooks, workstations, cloud client computing and end-user computing software solutions. From January 2003 until January 2009, Mr. Clarke served as Senior Vice President, Business Product Group. From November 2001 to January 2003, Mr. Clarke served as Vice President and General Manager, Relationship Product Group. In 1995, Mr. Clarke became the director of desktop development. Mr. Clarke joined Dell in 1987 as a quality engineer and has served in a variety of other engineering and management roles.
Allison Dew — Ms. Dew serves as the Chief Marketing Officer of Dell Technologies. In this role, in which she has served since March 2018, Ms. Dew is directly responsible for Dell Technologies’ global marketing organization and strategy and all aspects of our marketing efforts including brand and creative, product marketing, communications, digital, and field and channel marketing. Since joining Dell Technologies in 2008, Ms. Dew has been instrumental in Dell Technologies’ marketing transformation, leading an emphasis on data-driven marketing, customer understanding, and integrated planning. Most recently, prior to her current position, Ms. Dew led marketing for the Dell Technologies Client Solutions Group from December 2013 to March 2018. Before joining Dell Technologies, Ms. Dew served in various marketing leadership roles at Microsoft Corporation, a global technology company. Ms. Dew also worked in a regional advertising agency in Tokyo, Japan and with an independent multi-cultural advertising agency in New York City.
Howard D. Elias — Mr. Elias serves as President, Services and Digital of Dell Technologies, overseeing global support, deployment, consulting, education and managed services, the IT organization, and Virtustream. Mr. Elias also co-leads Dell Technologies Select, an elite sales team focused on serving some of Dell Technologies' largest customers. Mr. Elias previously served as President and Chief Operating Officer, EMC Global Enterprise Services from January 2013 until EMC’s acquisition by Dell Technologies, and was President and Chief Operating Officer, EMC Information Infrastructure and Cloud Services from September 2009 to January 2013. In these roles, Mr. Elias was responsible for setting the strategy, driving the execution, and creating the best practices for services that enabled the digital transformation and data center modernization of EMC’s customers. Mr. Elias also had responsibility at EMC for leading the integration of the Dell and EMC businesses, including overseeing the cross-functional teams that drove all facets of integration planning. Previously, Mr. Elias was EMC’s Executive Vice President, Global Marketing and Corporate Development, responsible for all marketing, sales enablement, technology alliances, corporate development, and new ventures. Mr. Elias was also a co-founder and served on the board of managers for the Virtual Computing Environment Company, now part of Dell Technologies’ converged platform division. Before joining EMC, Mr. Elias served in various capacities at Hewlett-Packard Company, a provider of information technology products, services, and solutions for enterprise customers, most recently as Senior Vice President of Business Management and Operations for the Enterprise Systems Group. Mr. Elias currently serves as chairman of TEGNA Inc., a media and digital business company, and is a member of the Massachusetts Business Roundtable.
Steven H. Price — Mr. Price serves as Dell Technologies’ Chief Human Resources Officer, leading both human resources and global facilities functions. In this role, Mr. Price is responsible for overall human resources strategy in support of the purpose, values, and business initiatives of Dell Technologies. He is also responsible for addressing the culture, leadership, talent, and performance challenges of the Company. Mr. Price previously served as Dell’s Senior Vice President, Human Resources from June 2010 to September 2016. Mr. Price joined Dell in February 1997 and has served in many key leadership roles throughout the HR organization, including Vice President of HR Operations, Global Talent Management, Vice President of HR for the global Consumer business, Vice President of HR Americas, and Vice President of HR EMEA. Before joining Dell in 1997, Mr. Price spent 13 years with SC Johnson Wax, a producer of consumer products based in Racine, Wisconsin. Having started his career there in sales, he later moved into human resources, where he held a variety of senior positions. Mr. Price also is the executive sponsor for the Black Employee Resource Group at Dell Technologies.
Karen H. Quintos — Ms. Quintos serves as Chief Customer Officer of Dell Technologies, where she leads a global organization solely devoted to customer advocacy, and is responsible for setting and executing a total customer experience strategy. Ms. Quintos also leads the Diversity and Inclusion and Corporate Responsibility business imperatives, which encompass social responsibility, entrepreneurship, and diversity. Ms. Quintos previously served as Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer (“CMO”) for Dell from September 2010 to September 2016, where she led marketing for the Company’s global commercial business, brand strategy, global communications, social media, corporate responsibility, customer insights, marketing talent development, and agency management. Before becoming CMO, Ms. Quintos served as Vice President of Dell’s global public business, from January 2008 to September 2010, and she also held various executive roles in marketing and in Dell’s Services and Supply Chain Management teams since joining Dell in 2000. Ms. Quintos came to Dell from Citigroup, Inc., an investment banking and financial services company, where she served as Vice President of Global Operations and Technology. She also spent 12 years with Merck & Co., a manufacturer and distributor of pharmaceuticals, where she held a variety of marketing, operations, and supply chain leadership positions. She has served on multiple boards of directors and currently serves on the boards of Cummins Inc., Lennox International, and Penn State’s Smeal Business School. Ms. Quintos also is founder and executive sponsor of Dell Technologies’ Women in Action employee resource group.
Rory Read — Mr. Read serves as Chief Operating Executive, Dell Technologies and as President of Virtustream. As Chief Operating Executive of Dell Technologies, in which position he has served since October 2015, Mr. Read applies his executive leadership strength and operational expertise to critical areas of our business, driving key transformational objectives. As President of Virtustream, in which role he has served since May 2018, Mr. Read is responsible for overseeing the strategic direction of Virtustream and driving business execution excellence. Mr. Read was Chief Integration Officer from October 2015 until April 2018 and led the historic transaction to combine Dell Inc. and EMC. From March 2015 to October 2015, Mr. Read served as Chief Operating Officer and President of Worldwide Commercial Sales for Dell, where he was responsible for cross-business unit and country-level operational planning, building and leading the Company’s best-in-class sales engine, and overseeing the strategy for the Company’s global channel team, system integrator partners, and direct sales force. Prior to joining Dell in March 2015, Mr. Read served as President and Chief Executive Officer at Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., a technology company, from August 2011 to October 2014, where he also served as a member of the board of directors. Before that service, he spent over five years as President and Chief Operating Officer at Lenovo Group Ltd., a computer technology company, where he was responsible for driving growth, execution, profitability, and performance across an enterprise encompassing more than 160 countries. Mr. Read also spent 23 years at International Business Machines Corporation, a technology and consulting company, serving in various leadership roles in the Asia-Pacific region and globally.
Richard J. Rothberg — Mr. Rothberg serves as General Counsel and Secretary for Dell Technologies. In this role, in which he has served since November 2013, Mr. Rothberg oversees the global legal department and manages government affairs, compliance, and ethics. He is also responsible for global security. Mr. Rothberg joined Dell in 1999 and has served in critical leadership roles throughout the legal department. He served as Vice President of Legal, supporting Dell’s businesses in the Europe, Middle East, and Africa region before moving to Singapore in 2008 as Vice President of Legal for the Asia-Pacific and Japan region. Mr. Rothberg returned to the United States in 2010 to serve as Vice President of Legal for the North America and Latin America regions. In this role, he was lead counsel for sales and operations in the Americas and for the enterprise solutions, software, and end-user computing business units. He also led the government affairs organization worldwide. Before joining Dell, Mr. Rothberg served nearly eight years at Caterpillar Inc., an equipment manufacturing company, in senior legal roles in Nashville, Tennessee and Geneva, Switzerland. Mr. Rothberg was also an attorney for IBM Credit Corporation and at Rogers & Wells, a law firm.
William F. Scannell — Mr. Scannell serves as President, Global Sales and Customer Operations for Dell Technologies, leading the global go-to-market organization. In this role, in which he has served since February 2020, Mr. Scannell is responsible for global go-to-market strategy and driving share and revenue growth for the Company’s products, services and solutions in 180 countries around the world. Mr. Scannell previously served as President, Global Enterprise Sales and Customer Operations for Dell Technologies from September 2017 to January 2020, leading the global go-to-market organization serving enterprise customers. In this role, Mr. Scannell led the Dell Technologies sales teams to deliver innovative and practical technology solutions to large enterprises and public institutions worldwide. Prior to his service in that position, Mr. Scannell served as President, Global Sales and Customer Operations at EMC Corporation. In this role, to which he was appointed in July 2012, Mr. Scannell focused on driving coordination and teamwork among EMC’s business unit sales forces, as well as building and maintaining relationships with EMC’s largest global accounts, global alliance partners, and global channel partners. Mr. Scannell began his career as an EMC sales representative in 1986, becoming country manager of Canada in 1988. Shortly thereafter, his responsibilities expanded to include the United States and Latin America. In 1999, Mr. Scannell moved to London to oversee EMC’s business across all of Europe, Middle East, and Africa. He then managed worldwide sales in 2001 and 2002 before being appointed Executive Vice President in 2007.
Thomas W. Sweet — Mr. Sweet serves as Chief Financial Officer of Dell Technologies. In this role, in which he has served since January 2014, he is responsible for all aspects of the Company’s finance function, including accounting, financial planning and analysis, tax, treasury, investor relations, and corporate strategy. He is also responsible for the global business operations function and Dell Financial Services. From May 2007 to January 2014, Mr. Sweet served in a variety of finance leadership roles for Dell, including as Vice President of Corporate Finance, Controller, and Chief Accounting Officer, with responsibility for global accounting, tax, treasury, and investor relations, as well as for global finance services. Mr. Sweet was responsible for external financial reporting for more than five years when Dell Inc. was a publicly-traded company. Prior to this, he served in a variety of finance leadership positions, including as Vice President responsible for overall finance activities within the corporate business, education, government, and healthcare business units of Dell. Mr. Sweet also has served as the head of internal audit and in a number of sales leadership roles in education and corporate business units since joining Dell in 1997. Prior to joining Dell, Mr. Sweet was vice president, accounting and finance, for Telos Corporation, a provider of security solutions. Before that, he spent 13 years with Price Waterhouse, a firm specializing in assurance, tax, and consulting services, in a variety of roles primarily focused on providing audit and accounting services to the technology industry.
ITEM 1A — RISK FACTORS
Our business, operating results, financial condition, and prospects are subject to a variety of significant risks, many of which are beyond our control. The following is a description of some of the important risk factors that may cause our actual results in future periods to differ substantially from those Dell Technologies currently expects or seeks. The risks described below are not the only risks facing us. There are additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that Dell Technologies currently deems to be immaterial that also may materially adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition, or prospects.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Our Industry
Competitive pressures may adversely affect Dell Technologies’ industry unit share position, revenue, and profitability.
Dell Technologies operates in an industry in which there are rapid technological advances in hardware, software, and services offerings. As a result, Dell Technologies faces aggressive product and price competition from both branded and generic competitors. Dell Technologies competes based on its ability to offer to its customers competitive integrated solutions that provide desired product and services features. Dell Technologies’ competitors may provide products that are less costly, perform better or include additional features that are not available with Dell Technologies’ products. Further, Dell Technologies’ product portfolios may quickly become outdated or that Dell Technologies’ market share may quickly erode. Efforts to balance the mix of products and services to optimize profitability, liquidity, and growth also may put pressure on Dell Technologies’ industry position.
As the technology industry continues to expand globally, there may be new and increased competition in different geographic regions. The generally low barriers to entry in the technology industry increase the potential for challenges from new industry competitors. There also may be increased competition from new types of products as the options for mobile and cloud computing solutions increase. In addition, companies with which Dell Technologies has strategic alliances may become competitors in other product areas, or current competitors may enter into new strategic relationships with new or existing competitors, all of which may further increase the competitive pressures on Dell Technologies.
Reliance on vendors for products and components, many of which are single-source or limited-source suppliers, could harm Dell Technologies’ business by adversely affecting product availability, delivery, reliability, and cost.
Dell Technologies maintains several single-source or limited-source supplier relationships, including relationships with third-party software providers, either because multiple sources are not readily available or because the relationships are advantageous due to performance, quality, support, delivery, capacity, or price considerations. A delay in the supply of a critical single- or limited-source product or component may prevent the timely shipment of the related product in desired quantities or configurations. In addition, Dell Technologies may not be able to replace the functionality provided by third-party software currently offered with its products if that software becomes obsolete, defective, or incompatible with future product versions or is not adequately maintained or updated. Even where multiple sources of supply are available, qualification of the alternative suppliers and establishment of reliable supplies could result in delays and a possible loss of sales, which could harm Dell Technologies’ operating results.
Dell Technologies obtains many of its products and all of its components from third-party vendors, many of which are located outside of the United States. In addition, significant portions of Dell Technologies’ products are assembled by contract manufacturers, primarily in various locations in Asia. A significant concentration of such outsourced manufacturing currently is performed by only a few of Dell Technologies’ contract manufacturers, often in single locations. Dell Technologies sells components to these contract manufacturers and generates large non-trade accounts receivables, an arrangement that would present a risk of uncollectibility if the financial condition of a contract manufacturer should deteriorate.
Although these relationships generate cost efficiencies, they limit Dell Technologies’ direct control over production. The increasing reliance on vendors subjects Dell Technologies to a greater risk of shortages and reduced control over delivery schedules of components and products, as well as a greater risk of increases in product and component costs. Dell Technologies may experience supply shortages and price increases caused by changes to raw material availability, manufacturing capacity, labor shortages, public health issues, such as the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), tariffs, trade disputes and protectionist measures, natural catastrophes or the effects of climate change (such as extreme weather conditions, sea level
rise, drought, flooding and wildfires), and significant changes in the financial condition of Dell Technologies’ suppliers. Because Dell Technologies maintains minimal levels of component and product inventories, a disruption in component or product availability could harm its ability to satisfy customer needs. In addition, defective parts and products from these vendors could reduce product reliability and harm Dell Technologies’ reputation.
If Dell Technologies fails to achieve favorable pricing from vendors, its profitability could be adversely affected.
Dell Technologies’ profitability is affected by its ability to achieve favorable pricing from vendors and contract manufacturers, including through negotiations for vendor rebates, marketing funds, and other vendor funding received in the normal course of business. Because these supplier negotiations are continuous and reflect the evolving competitive environment, the variability in timing and amount of incremental vendor discounts and rebates can affect Dell Technologies’ profitability. The vendor programs may change periodically, potentially resulting in adverse profitability trends if Dell Technologies cannot adjust pricing or variable costs. An inability to establish a cost and product advantage, or determine alternative means to deliver value to customers, may adversely affect Dell Technologies’ revenue and profitability.
Adverse global economic conditions may harm Dell Technologies’ business and result in reduced net revenue and profitability.
As a global company with customers operating in a broad range of businesses and industries, Dell Technologies’ performance is affected by global economic conditions and the demand for technology products and services in international markets. Adverse economic conditions may negatively affect customer demand, and could result in postponed or decreased spending amid customer concerns over unemployment, reduced asset values, volatile energy costs, geopolitical issues, the availability and cost of credit, and the stability and solvency of financial institutions, financial markets, businesses, local and state governments, and sovereign nations. Weak or unstable global economic conditions, including due to international trade protection measures and disputes, such as those between the United States and China, or due to public health issues, such as the outbreak of COVID-19 discussed below, also could harm Dell Technologies’ business by contributing to product shortages or delays, supply chain disruptions, insolvency of key suppliers, customer and counterparty insolvencies, increased product costs and associated price increases, reduced global sales, and other adverse effects on Dell Technologies’ operations. Any such effects could have a negative impact on Dell Technologies’ net revenue and profitability.
In December 2019, COVID-19 was reported to have been detected in Wuhan, China, and since then has spread to many other countries, including the United States. The extent to which COVID-19 may affect our business, financial position, and results of operations depends on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. The spread of COVID-19 may create global economic uncertainty, which may cause partners, suppliers, and potential customers to restrict spending or delay nonessential purchases. If COVID-19 continues to spread, Dell Technologies’ business operations could be adversely affected by potential reductions in sales, earnings, or productivity resulting from possible impacts of COVID-19 such as production delays or limitations; adverse effects on distributors; supply chain disruptions; delays or limitations on the ability of U.S. federal, state, and local governments and other customers to perform or make timely payments; adverse investment performance; disruptions in business travel; and workforce disruptions due to illness, quarantines, government actions, facility closures or other restrictions. Additionally, Dell Technologies may be unable to fully perform its contracts and its costs may increase as a result of the outbreak of COVID-19. Dell Technologies continues to work with its customers, employees, suppliers and local communities to address the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and continues to assess further possible impacts to its business, supply chain, and customers.
Dell Technologies’ results of operations may be adversely affected if it fails to successfully execute its strategy.
Dell Technologies’ strategy involves enabling the digital transformation of its customers while leading in the core infrastructure markets in which it competes. Accordingly, Dell Technologies must continue to expand its customer base through direct sales, new distribution channels, further developing relationships with resellers, and augmenting select business areas through targeted acquisitions and other commercial arrangements. As more customers are reached through new distribution channels and expanded reseller relationships, Dell Technologies may fail to manage effectively the increasingly difficult tasks of inventory management and demand forecasting. The ability to implement this strategy depends on a successful transitioning of sales capabilities, the successful addition to the breadth of Dell Technologies’ solutions capabilities through selective acquisitions of other businesses, and the effective management of the consequences of these strategic initiatives. If Dell Technologies is unable to meet these challenges, its results of operations could be adversely affected.
Dell Technologies is organized into three business units consisting of ISG, CSG, and VMware which are each important components of Dell Technologies’ strategy. ISG consists of a portfolio of storage, server, and networking solutions and faces intense competition from existing on-premises competitors and increasing competitive pressures from public cloud providers. Accordingly, Dell Technologies could be required to make additional investments to combat such competitive pressures and drive future growth. Such pressures could result in the erosion of revenue and operating income and adversely affect ISG’s results of operations. In order to address an industry trend toward hybrid-computing models, Dell Technologies has developed and continues to develop traditional, converged, and hyper-converged infrastructure solutions to address the expanding needs of its customers. ISG’s results of operations could be adversely affected if such solutions are not adopted by Dell Technologies’ customers or potential customers, or if customers move rapidly to adopt public cloud solutions.
For Fiscal 2020, CSG generated approximately 50% of Dell Technologies’ net revenue, and largely relied on sales of desktops, workstations, and notebooks. Revenue from CSG absorbs Dell Technologies’ overhead costs and allows for scaled procurement. CSG faces risk and uncertainties from fundamental changes in the personal computer (“PC”) market, including a decline in worldwide revenues for desktops, workstations, and notebooks, and lower shipment forecasts for these products due to a general lengthening of the replacement cycle. Any reduced demand for PC products or a significant increase in competition could cause operating income to fluctuate and adversely impact CSG’s results of operations.
The success of the VMware business unit depends increasingly on customer acceptance of VMware’s newer offerings. VMware’s solutions are primarily based on server virtualization and related compute technologies used for virtualizing on-premises data center servers, which form the foundation for private cloud computing. As the market for server virtualization continues to mature, the rate of growth in license sales of products such as VMware’s vSphere has declined. The VMware business unit has been increasingly directing its product development and marketing efforts toward solutions that enable businesses to utilize virtualization as the foundation for private, public, hybrid and multi-cloud-based computing and mobile computing. To the extent that VMware’s newer offerings are adopted by customers more slowly than revenue growth in the established server virtualization offerings declines, this segment’s revenue growth rates may slow materially or its revenue may decline, and VMware may fail to realize returns on its investments in new initiatives.
If its cost efficiency measures are not successful, Dell Technologies may become less competitive.
Dell Technologies continues to focus on minimizing operating expenses through cost improvements and simplification of its corporate structure. Certain factors may prevent the achievement of these goals, which may negatively affect Dell Technologies’ competitive position. For example, Dell Technologies may experience delays or unanticipated costs in implementing its cost efficiency plans, which could prevent the timely or full achievement of expected cost efficiencies.
Dell Technologies’ inability to manage solutions and product and services transitions in an effective manner could reduce the demand for Dell Technologies’ solutions, products, and services, and negatively affect the profitability of Dell Technologies’ operations.
Continuing improvements in technology result in the frequent introduction of new solutions, products, and services, improvements in product performance characteristics, and short product life cycles. If Dell Technologies fails to manage in an effective manner transitions to new solutions and offerings, the products and services associated with such offerings and customer demand for Dell Technologies’ solutions, products, and services could diminish, and Dell Technologies’ profitability could suffer.
Dell Technologies is increasingly sourcing new products and transitioning existing products through its contract manufacturers and manufacturing outsourcing relationships in order to generate cost efficiencies and better serve its customers. The success of product transitions depends on a number of factors, including the availability of sufficient quantities of components at attractive costs. Product transitions also present execution uncertainties and risks, including the risk that new or upgraded products may have quality issues or other defects.
Failure to deliver high-quality hardware, software, and services could lead to loss of customers and diminished profitability.
Dell Technologies must identify and address quality issues associated with its hardware, software, and services, many of which include third-party components. Although quality testing is performed regularly to detect quality problems and implement
required solutions, failure to identify and correct significant product quality issues before the sale of such products to customers could result in lower sales, increased warranty or replacement expenses, and reduced customer confidence, which could harm Dell Technologies’ operating results.
Cyber attacks or other security incidents that disrupt Dell Technologies’ operations or result in the breach or other compromise of proprietary or confidential information about Dell Technologies or Dell Technologies’ workforce, customers, or other third parties could disrupt Dell Technologies’ business, harm its reputation, cause Dell Technologies to lose clients and expose Dell Technologies to costly regulatory enforcement and litigation.
Dell Technologies manages, stores, and otherwise processes various proprietary information and sensitive or confidential data relating to its operations. In addition, Dell Technologies’ businesses routinely process, store, and transmit large amounts of data, including sensitive and personally identifiable information, for Dell Technologies’ customers. Criminal or other actors may be able to penetrate Dell Technologies’ security and misappropriate or compromise Dell Technologies’ confidential information or that of third parties, create system disruptions or cause shutdowns. Dell Technologies may experience breaches or other compromises of its information technology systems. Dell reported in November 2018 that it had detected and disrupted unauthorized activity on its network attempting to extract Dell.com customer information. Further, hardware and operating system software and applications that Dell Technologies produces or procures from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture, including “bugs” and other problems that could unexpectedly interfere with the operation of such systems.
The costs to address the foregoing security problems and security vulnerabilities before or after a security incident could be significant. Remediation efforts may not be successful and could result in interruptions, delays, or cessation of service and loss of existing or potential customers that may impede Dell Technologies’ sales, manufacturing, distribution, or other critical functions. Dell Technologies could lose existing or potential customers for outsourcing services or other information technology solutions in connection with any actual or perceived security vulnerabilities in Dell Technologies’ products. In addition, breaches of Dell Technologies’ security measures and the unapproved dissemination of proprietary information or sensitive or confidential data about Dell Technologies, its customers, or other third parties could expose Dell Technologies, its customers or other third parties affected to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, result in regulatory enforcement, litigation and potential liability for Dell Technologies, damage Dell Technologies’ brand and reputation or otherwise harm Dell Technologies’ business. Further, Dell Technologies relies on third-party data management providers and other vendors whose possible security problems and security vulnerabilities may have similar effects on Dell Technologies.
Dell Technologies is subject to laws, rules, and regulations in the United States and other countries relating to the collection, use, and security of user and other data. Dell Technologies’ ability to execute transactions and to possess and use personal information and data in conducting its business subjects it to legislative and regulatory burdens that may require Dell Technologies to notify regulators and customers, employees, or other individuals of a security breach, including in the European Union under the EU General Data Protection Regulation. Dell Technologies has incurred, and will continue to incur, significant expenses to comply with mandatory privacy and security standards and protocols imposed by law, regulation, industry standards, or contractual obligations, but despite such expenditures may face regulatory and other legal actions in the event of a data breach or perceived or actual non-compliance with such requirements.
Dell Technologies may not successfully implement its acquisition strategy, which could result in unforeseen operating difficulties and increased costs.
Dell Technologies makes strategic acquisitions of other companies as part of its growth strategy. Dell Technologies could experience unforeseen operating difficulties in assimilating or integrating the businesses, technologies, services, products, personnel, or operations of acquired companies, especially if Dell Technologies is unable to retain the key personnel of an acquired company. Further, future acquisitions may result in a delay or reduction of sales for both Dell Technologies and the acquired company because of customer uncertainty about the continuity and effectiveness of solutions offered by either company and may disrupt Dell Technologies’ existing business by diverting resources and significant management attention that otherwise would be focused on development of the existing business. Acquisitions also may negatively affect Dell Technologies’ relationships with strategic partners if the acquisitions are seen as bringing Dell Technologies into competition with such partners.
To complete an acquisition, Dell Technologies may be required to use substantial amounts of cash, engage in equity or debt financings, or enter into credit agreements to secure additional funds. Such debt financings could involve restrictive covenants that might limit Dell Technologies’ capital-raising activities and operating flexibility. Further, an acquisition may negatively affect Dell Technologies’ results of operations because it may expose Dell Technologies to unexpected liabilities, require the incurrence of charges and substantial indebtedness or other liabilities, have adverse tax consequences, result in acquired in-process research and development expenses, or in the future require the amortization, write-down, or impairment of amounts related to deferred compensation, goodwill, and other intangible assets, or fail to generate a financial return sufficient to offset acquisition costs.
In addition, Dell Technologies periodically divests businesses, including businesses that are no longer a part of its strategic plan. These divestitures similarly require significant investment of time and resources, may disrupt Dell Technologies’ business and distract management from other responsibilities, and may result in losses on disposition or continued financial involvement in the divested business, including through indemnification or other financial arrangements, for a period following the transaction, which could adversely affect Dell Technologies’ financial results.
Dell Technologies’ ability to generate substantial non-U.S. net revenue is subject to additional risks and uncertainties.
Sales outside the United States accounted for approximately half of Dell Technologies’ consolidated net revenue for Fiscal 2020. Dell Technologies’ future growth rates and success are substantially dependent on the continued growth of Dell Technologies’ business outside of the United States. Dell Technologies’ international operations face many risks and uncertainties, including varied local economic and labor conditions; political instability; public health issues, such as the outbreak of COVID-19; changes in the U.S. and international regulatory environments; the impacts of trade protection measures, including increases in tariffs and trade barriers due to the current geopolitical climate and changes and instability in government policies and international trade arrangements, which could adversely affect Dell Technologies’ ability to conduct business in non-U.S. markets; tax laws (including U.S. taxes on foreign operations); potential theft or other compromise of our technology, data, or intellectual property; copyright levies; and foreign currency exchange rates. Dell Technologies’ international operations could suffer as a result of the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union, effective on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as Brexit. The unsettled terms of the withdrawal, which are subject to negotiation during an 11-month transition period, have created significant uncertainty in areas currently regulated by European Union law, such as cross-border data transfers. Further, trade, immigration, and commercial regulation may be modified during the transition period or permanently as a result of Brexit. Dell Technologies could incur additional operating costs, or sustain supply chain disruptions, due to any such changes. Any of these factors could negatively affect Dell Technologies’ international business results and prospects for growth.
Dell Technologies’ profitability may be adversely affected by changes in the mix of products and services, customers, or geographic sales, and by seasonal sales trends.
Dell Technologies’ overall profitability for any period may be adversely affected by changes in the mix of products and services, customers, or geographic markets reflected in sales for that period, and by seasonal trends. Profit margins vary among products, services, customers, and geographic markets. For instance, services offerings generally have a higher profit margin than consumer products. In addition, parts of Dell Technologies’ business are subject to seasonal sales trends. Among the trends with the most significant impact on Dell Technologies’ operating results, sales to government customers (particularly the U.S. federal government) are typically stronger in Dell Technologies’ third fiscal quarter, sales in Europe, the Middle East and Africa are often weaker in Dell Technologies’ third fiscal quarter, and sales to consumers are typically strongest during Dell Technologies’ fourth fiscal quarter.
Dell Technologies may lose revenue opportunities and experience gross margin pressure if sales channel participants fail to perform as expected.
Dell Technologies relies on third-party value-added resellers, system integrators, distributors, retailers, and other sales channels to complement its direct sales organization in order to reach more end-users globally. Future operating results depend on the performance of sales channel participants and on Dell Technologies’ success in maintaining and developing these relationships. Revenue and gross margins could be negatively affected if the financial condition or operations of channel participants weaken as a result of adverse economic conditions or other business challenges, or if uncertainty regarding the demand for Dell Technologies’ products causes channel participants to reduce their orders for these products. Further, some channel participants
may consider the expansion of Dell Technologies’ direct sales initiatives to conflict with their business interests as distributors or resellers of Dell Technologies’ products, which could lead them to reduce their investment in the distribution and sale of such products, or to cease all sales of Dell Technologies’ products.
Dell Technologies’ financial performance could suffer from reduced access to the capital markets by Dell Technologies or some of its customers.
Dell Technologies may access debt and capital sources to provide financing for customers and to obtain funds for general corporate purposes, including working capital, acquisitions, capital expenditures, and funding of customer receivables. In addition, Dell Technologies maintains customer financing relationships with some companies that rely on access to the debt and capital markets to meet significant funding needs. Any inability of these companies to access such markets could compel Dell Technologies to self-fund transactions with such companies or to forgo customer financing opportunities, which could harm Dell Technologies’ financial performance. The debt and capital markets may experience extreme volatility and disruption from time to time in the future, which could result in higher credit spreads in such markets and higher funding costs for Dell Technologies. The spread of COVID-19 has led to disruption and volatility in the global capital markets, which increases the cost of capital and adversely impacts access to capital. Deterioration in Dell Technologies’ business performance, a credit rating downgrade, volatility in the securitization markets, changes in financial services regulation, or adverse changes in the economy could lead to reductions in the availability of debt financing. In addition, these events could limit Dell Technologies’ ability to continue asset securitizations or other forms of financing from debt or capital sources, reduce the amount of financing receivables that Dell Technologies originates, or negatively affect the costs or terms on which Dell Technologies may be able to obtain capital. Any of these developments could adversely affect Dell Technologies’ net revenue, profitability, and cash flows.
If the value of goodwill or intangible assets is materially impaired, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
As of January 31, 2020, goodwill and intangible assets, net had a combined carrying value of $59.8 billion, representing approximately 50% of our total consolidated assets. We periodically evaluate goodwill and intangible assets, net to determine whether all or a portion of their carrying values may be impaired, in which case an impairment charge may be necessary. The value of goodwill may be materially and adversely affected if businesses that we acquire perform in a manner that is inconsistent with our assumptions at the time of acquisition. In addition, from time to time we divest businesses, and any such divestiture could result in significant asset impairment and disposition charges, including those related to goodwill and intangible assets, net. Any future evaluations resulting in an impairment of goodwill or intangible assets, net could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition in the period in which the impairment is recognized.
Weak economic conditions and additional regulation could harm Dell Technologies’ financial services activities.
Dell Technologies’ financial services activities are negatively affected by adverse economic conditions that contribute to loan delinquencies and defaults. An increase in loan delinquencies and defaults would result in greater net credit losses, which may require Dell Technologies to increase its reserves for customer receivables.
In addition, the implementation of new financial services regulation, or the application of existing financial services regulation, in countries where Dell Technologies expands its financial services and related supporting activities, could unfavorably affect the profitability and cash flows of Dell Technologies’ consumer financing activities.
Dell Technologies is subject to counterparty default risks.
Dell Technologies has numerous arrangements with financial institutions that include cash and investment deposits, interest rate swap contracts, foreign currency option contracts, and forward contracts. As a result, Dell Technologies is subject to the risk that the counterparty to one or more of these arrangements will default, either voluntarily or involuntarily, on its performance under the terms of the arrangement. In times of market distress, a counterparty may default rapidly and without notice, and Dell Technologies may be unable to take action to cover its exposure, either because of lack of contractual ability to do so or because market conditions make it difficult to take effective action. If one of Dell Technologies’ counterparties becomes insolvent or files for bankruptcy, Dell Technologies’ ability eventually to recover any losses suffered as a result of that counterparty’s default may be limited by the impaired liquidity of the counterparty or the applicable legal regime governing the
bankruptcy proceeding. In the event of such a default, Dell Technologies could incur significant losses, which could harm Dell Technologies’ business and adversely affect its results of operations and financial condition.
Dell Technologies’ performance and business could suffer if its contracts for ISG services and solutions fail to produce revenue at expected levels due to exercise of customer rights under the contracts, inaccurate estimation of costs, or customer defaults in payment.
Dell Technologies offers its ISG customers a range of consumption models for its services and solutions, including as-a-service, utility, leases, or immediate pay models, all designed to match customers’ consumption preferences. These solutions are generally multi-year agreements that typically result in recurring revenue streams over the term of the arrangement. Dell Technologies’ financial results and growth depend, in part, on its customers continuing to purchase its services and solutions over the contract life on the agreed terms. The contracts allow customers to take actions that may adversely affect Dell Technologies’ recurring revenue and profitability. These actions include terminating a contract if Dell Technologies’ performance does not meet specified services levels, requesting rate reductions, reducing the use of Dell Technologies’ services and solutions or terminating a contract early upon payment of agreed fees. In addition, Dell Technologies estimates the costs of delivering the services and solutions at the outset of the contract. If Dell Technologies fails to estimate such costs accurately and actual costs significantly exceed estimates, Dell Technologies may incur losses on the contracts. Dell Technologies also is subject to the risk of loss under its contracts as a result of a default, voluntarily or involuntarily, in payment by the customer, whether because of financial weakness or other reasons.
Loss of government contracts could harm Dell Technologies’ business.
Contracts with U.S. federal, state, and local governments and with foreign governments are subject to future funding that may affect the extension or termination of programs and to the right of such governments to terminate contracts for convenience or non-appropriation. There is pressure on governments, both domestically and internationally, to reduce spending. Funding reductions or delays could adversely affect public sector demand for Dell Technologies’ products and services. In addition, if Dell Technologies violates legal or regulatory requirements, the applicable government could suspend or disbar Dell Technologies as a contractor, which would unfavorably affect Dell Technologies’ net revenue and profitability.
Dell Technologies’ business could suffer if Dell Technologies does not develop and protect its proprietary intellectual property or obtain or protect licenses to intellectual property developed by others on commercially reasonable and competitive terms.
If Dell Technologies or its suppliers are unable to develop or protect desirable technology or technology licenses, Dell Technologies may be prevented from marketing products, may have to market products without desirable features, or may incur substantial costs to redesign products. Dell Technologies also may have to defend or enforce legal actions or pay damages if Dell Technologies is found to have violated the intellectual property of other parties. Although Dell Technologies’ suppliers might be contractually obligated to obtain or protect such licenses and indemnify Dell Technologies against related expenses, those suppliers could be unable to meet their obligations. Dell Technologies invests in research and development and obtains additional intellectual property through acquisitions, but those activities do not guarantee that Dell Technologies will develop or obtain intellectual property necessary for profitable operations. Costs involved in developing and protecting rights in intellectual property may have a negative impact on Dell Technologies’ business. In addition, Dell Technologies’ operating costs could increase because of copyright levies or similar fees by rights holders and collection agencies in European and other countries.
Infrastructure disruptions could harm Dell Technologies’ business.
Dell Technologies depends on its information technology and manufacturing infrastructure to achieve its business objectives. Natural disasters, manufacturing failures, telecommunications system failures, or defective or improperly installed new or upgraded business management systems could lead to disruptions in this infrastructure. Portions of Dell Technologies’ IT infrastructure also may experience interruptions, delays, or cessations of service, or produce errors in connection with systems integration or migration work. Such disruptions may adversely affect Dell Technologies’ ability to receive or process orders, manufacture and ship products in a timely manner or otherwise conduct business in the normal course. Further, portions of Dell Technologies’ services business involve the processing, storage, and transmission of data, which also would be negatively affected by such an event. Disruptions in Dell Technologies’ infrastructure could lead to loss of customers and revenue,
particularly during a period of heavy demand for Dell Technologies’ products and services. Dell Technologies also could incur significant expense in repairing system damage and taking other remedial measures.
Failure to hedge effectively Dell Technologies’ exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates could adversely affect Dell Technologies’ financial condition and results of operations.
Dell Technologies utilizes derivative instruments to hedge its exposure to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. Some of these instruments and contracts may involve elements of market and credit risk in excess of the amounts recognized in Dell Technologies’ financial statements. Global economic events, including trade disputes, economic sanctions and emerging market volatility, and associated uncertainty may cause currencies to fluctuate, which may contribute to variations in Dell Technologies’ sales of products and services in various jurisdictions. If Dell Technologies is not successful in monitoring its foreign exchange exposures and conducting an effective hedging program, Dell Technologies’ foreign currency hedging activities may not offset the impact of fluctuations in currency exchange rates on its future results of operations and financial position.
Adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes, the expiration of tax holidays or favorable tax rate structures, or unfavorable outcomes in tax audits and other tax compliance matters could result in an increase in Dell Technologies’ tax expense or its effective income tax rate.
Changes in tax laws (including any future Treasury notices or regulations related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act that was signed into law on December 22, 2017) could adversely affect Dell Technologies’ operations and profitability. In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial, and administrative changes have been made to tax laws applicable to Dell Technologies and companies similar to Dell Technologies. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (the “OECD”), an international association of 36 countries, including the United States, has issued guidelines that change long-standing tax principles. This may introduce tax uncertainty as countries amend their tax laws to adopt certain parts of the OECD guidelines. Additional changes to tax laws are likely to occur, and such changes may adversely affect Dell Technologies’ tax liability.
Portions of Dell Technologies’ operations are subject to a reduced tax rate or are free of tax under various tax holidays that expire in whole or in part from time to time. Many of these holidays may be extended when certain conditions are met, or may be terminated if certain conditions are not met. If the tax holidays are not extended, or if Dell Technologies fails to satisfy the conditions of the reduced tax rate, its effective tax rate would be affected. Dell Technologies’ effective tax rate also could be impacted if Dell Technologies’ geographic sales mix changes. In addition, any actions by Dell Technologies to repatriate non-U.S. earnings for which it has not previously provided for U.S. taxes may affect the effective tax rate.
Dell Technologies is continually under audit in various tax jurisdictions. Dell Technologies may not be successful in resolving potential tax claims that arise from these audits. An unfavorable outcome in certain of these matters could result in a substantial increase in Dell Technologies’ tax expense. In addition, Dell Technologies’ provision for income taxes could be adversely affected by changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets.
Dell Technologies’ profitability could suffer from any impairment of its portfolio investments.
Dell Technologies invests a significant portion of its available funds in a portfolio consisting primarily of debt securities of various types and maturities pending the deployment of these funds in Dell Technologies’ business. Dell Technologies’ earnings performance could suffer from any impairment of its investments. Dell Technologies’ portfolio securities generally are classified as available-for-sale and are recorded in Dell Technologies’ financial statements at fair value. If any such investments experience declines in market price and it is determined that such declines are other than temporary, Dell Technologies may have to recognize in earnings the decline in the fair market value of such investments below their cost or carrying value.
Unfavorable results of legal proceedings could harm Dell Technologies’ business and result in substantial costs.
Dell Technologies is involved in various claims, suits, investigations, and legal proceedings that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of business, as well as those that arose in connection with the Class V transaction, including those described elsewhere in this report. Additional legal claims or regulatory matters affecting Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries may arise in the future and could involve stockholder, consumer, regulatory, compliance, intellectual property, antitrust, tax, and other issues on a global basis. Litigation is inherently unpredictable. Regardless of the merits of the claims, litigation may be both
time-consuming and disruptive to Dell Technologies’ business. Dell Technologies could incur judgments or enter into settlements of claims that could adversely affect its operating results or cash flows in a particular period. In addition, Dell Technologies’ business, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected if any infringement or other intellectual property claim made against it by any third party is successful, or if Dell Technologies fails to develop non-infringing technology or license the proprietary rights on commercially reasonable terms and conditions.
Compliance requirements of current or future environmental and safety laws, or other laws, may increase costs, expose Dell Technologies to potential liability and otherwise harm Dell Technologies’ business.
Dell Technologies’ operations are subject to environmental and safety regulations in all areas in which Dell Technologies conducts business. Product design and procurement operations must comply with new and future requirements relating to climate change laws and regulations, materials composition, sourcing, energy efficiency and collection, recycling, treatment, transportation, and disposal of electronics products, including restrictions on mercury, lead, cadmium, lithium metal, lithium ion, and other substances. If Dell Technologies fails to comply with applicable rules and regulations regarding the transportation, source, use, and sale of such regulated substances, Dell Technologies could be subject to liability. The costs and timing of costs under environmental and safety laws are difficult to predict, but could have an adverse impact on Dell Technologies’ business.
In addition, Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries are subject to various anti-corruption laws that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, and are also subject to export controls, customs, economic sanctions laws, and embargoes imposed by the U.S. government. Violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or other anti-corruption laws or export control, customs, or economic sanctions laws may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions and penalties, and Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries may be subject to other liabilities which could have a material adverse effect on their business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Dell Technologies also is subject to provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act intended to improve transparency and accountability concerning the supply of minerals originating from the conflict zones of the Democratic Republic of Congo or adjoining countries. Dell Technologies incurs costs to comply with the disclosure requirements of this law and other costs relating to the sourcing and availability of minerals used in Dell Technologies’ products. Further, Dell Technologies may face reputational harm if its customers or other Dell Technologies stakeholders conclude that Dell Technologies is unable to sufficiently verify the origins of the minerals used in its products.
Armed hostilities, terrorism, natural disasters, climate change, or public health issues could harm Dell Technologies’ business.
Armed hostilities, terrorism, natural disasters, climate change or public health issues, such as the outbreak of COVID-19, whether in the United States or in other countries, could cause damage or disruption to Dell Technologies or Dell Technologies’ suppliers and customers, or could create political or economic instability, any of which could harm Dell Technologies’ business. For example, the earthquake and tsunami in Japan and severe flooding in Thailand which occurred during fiscal year 2012 caused damage to infrastructure and factories that disrupted the supply chain for a variety of components used in Dell’s products. Any such future events could cause a decrease in demand for Dell Technologies’ products, make it difficult or impossible to deliver products or for suppliers to deliver components, and create delays and inefficiencies in Dell Technologies’ supply chain.
The long-term effects of climate change on the technology industry and the global economy are unclear. Climate change could result in certain types of natural disasters occurring more frequently or with more intensity. Such events could affect Dell Technologies’ ability to provide its services and solutions to its customers and could result in reductions in sales, earnings, or productivity resulting from such potential impacts as production delays or limitations, adverse effects on distributors, supply chain disruptions, and reduced access to facilities.
Dell Technologies is highly dependent on the services of Michael S. Dell, its Chief Executive Officer, and its success depends on the ability to attract, retain, and motivate key employees.
Dell Technologies is highly dependent on the services of Michael S. Dell, its Chief Executive Officer and largest stockholder. If Dell Technologies loses the services of Mr. Dell, Dell Technologies may not be able to locate a suitable or qualified
replacement, and Dell Technologies may incur additional expenses to recruit a replacement, which could severely disrupt Dell Technologies’ business and growth. Further, Dell Technologies relies on key personnel, including other members of its executive leadership team, to support its business and increasingly complex product and services offerings. Dell Technologies may not be able to attract, retain, and motivate the key professional, technical, marketing, and staff resources needed.
Dell Technologies’ substantial level of indebtedness could adversely affect its financial condition.
Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries have a substantial amount of indebtedness, which requires significant interest and other debt service payments. As of January 31, 2020, Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries had approximately $52.7 billion aggregate principal amount of indebtedness. As of the same date, Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries also had an additional $6.0 billion available for borrowing under its revolving credit facilities.
Dell Technologies’ substantial level of indebtedness could have important consequences, including the following:
Dell Technologies must use a substantial portion of its cash flow from operations to pay interest and principal on its senior credit facilities, its senior secured and senior unsecured notes, and its other indebtedness, which reduces funds available to Dell Technologies for other purposes such as working capital, capital expenditures, other general corporate purposes, and potential acquisitions;
Dell Technologies’ ability to refinance such indebtedness or to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, or other general corporate purposes may be impaired;
Dell Technologies is exposed to fluctuations in interest rates because Dell Technologies’ senior credit facilities have variable rates of interest;
Dell Technologies’ level of indebtedness may be greater than that of some of its competitors, which may put Dell Technologies at a competitive disadvantage and reduce Dell Technologies’ flexibility in responding to current and changing industry and financial market conditions; and
Dell Technologies may be unable to comply with financial and other restrictive covenants in its senior credit facilities, its senior notes, and other indebtedness that limit Dell Technologies’ ability to incur additional debt, make investments and sell assets, which could result in an event of default that, if not cured or waived, would have an adverse effect on Dell Technologies’ business and prospects and could force it into bankruptcy or liquidation.
Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in Dell Technologies’ and its subsidiaries’ credit facilities and the indentures that govern the senior notes. If new indebtedness is added to the debt levels of Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries, the related risks that Dell Technologies now faces could intensify. Dell Technologies’ ability to access additional funding under its revolving credit facilities will depend upon, among other factors, the absence of a default under any such facility, including any default arising from a failure to comply with the related covenants. If Dell Technologies is unable to comply with its covenants under its revolving credit facilities, Dell Technologies’ liquidity may be adversely affected.
From time to time, when it believes it is advantageous to do so, Dell Technologies may seek to reduce its leverage by repaying certain of its indebtedness before the maturity dates of such indebtedness. Dell Technologies may be unable to generate operating cash flows and other cash necessary to achieve a level of debt reduction that will significantly enhance its credit quality and reduce the risks associated with its substantial indebtedness.
As of January 31, 2020, approximately $15.9 billion of Dell Technologies’ debt was variable-rate indebtedness and a 100 basis point increase in interest rates would have resulted in an increase of approximately $160 million in annual interest expense on such indebtedness. Dell Technologies’ ability to meet its expenses, to remain in compliance with its covenants under its debt instruments and to make future principal and interest payments in respect of its indebtedness depends on, among other factors, Dell Technologies’ operating performance, competitive developments, and financial market conditions, all of which are significantly affected by financial, business, economic, and other factors. Dell Technologies is not able to control many of these factors. Given current industry and economic conditions, Dell Technologies’ cash flow may not be sufficient to allow Dell Technologies to pay principal and interest on its debt and meet its other obligations.
Dell Technologies’ current outstanding variable-rate indebtedness uses the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) as a benchmark for establishing the interest rate. LIBOR is the subject of recent national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms may cause LIBOR to be eliminated entirely after 2021 or to perform differently than in the past. Reasonable alternatives to LIBOR may be created and implemented prior to the 2021 target date. Fallback provisions are being written into LIBOR-based contracts in an attempt to reduce the risk of sudden and unpredictable increases in the cost of outstanding variable-rate indebtedness. Dell Technologies, however, cannot predict the timing of these developments or their impact on its indebtedness or financial condition.
The financial performance of Dell Technologies is affected by the financial performance of VMware, Inc.
Dell Technologies consolidates the financial results of VMware, Inc., a publicly traded subsidiary, in its results of operations. As a result, Dell Technologies’ financial performance is affected by the financial performance of VMware, Inc. VMware, Inc.’s financial performance may be affected by a number of factors, including, but not limited to:
fluctuations in demand, adoption rates, sales cycles, and pricing levels for VMware, Inc.’s product and solutions offerings;
variations in customer choices among VMware, Inc.’s on-premises and subscription and software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) offerings, which can impact VMware, Inc.’s rates of total revenue and license revenue growth;
changes in customers’ budgets for information technology purchases and in the timing of its purchasing decisions;
legal, administrative, and regulatory proceedings, claims, demands, and investigations relating to VMware Inc.’s business;
the timing of announcements or releases of new or upgraded products and solutions by VMware, Inc. or by its competitors;
the timing and size of business realignment plans and restructuring charges;
VMware, Inc.’s ability to maintain scalable internal systems for reporting, order processing, license fulfillment, product delivery, purchasing, billing, and general accounting, among other functions;
VMware, Inc.’s ability to control costs, including its operating expenses;
credit risks of VMware, Inc.’s distributors, who account for a significant portion of VMware, Inc.’s product revenues and accounts receivable, and VMware, Inc.’s customers;
the timing of when sales orders are processed, which can cause fluctuations in VMware, Inc.’s backlog and impact VMware, Inc.’s sales and timing of revenue recognition;
seasonal factors, such as the end of fiscal period budget expenditures by VMware, Inc.’s customers and the timing of holiday and vacation periods;
renewal rates and the amounts of the renewals for enterprise agreements, as the original terms of such agreements expire;
the timing and amount of internally developed software development costs that may be capitalized;
unplanned events that could affect market perception of the quality or cost-effectiveness of VMware, Inc.’s products and solutions;
increased volatility in the provision for income taxes in periods where transfers of intellectual property between VMware, Inc.’s legal entities occur; and
VMware, Inc.’s ability to predict accurately the degree to which customers will elect to purchase its subscription‑based offerings in place of licenses to its on‑premises offerings.
Risks Relating to Ownership of Class C Common Stock
The price of Dell Technologies’ Class C Common Stock may be volatile, which could cause the value of an investment in the Class C Common Stock to decline.
The trading prices of the securities of technology companies historically have experienced high levels of volatility. The trading price of Dell Technologies’ Class C Common Stock may fluctuate substantially as a result of the following factors, among others:
announcements of new products, services or technologies, commercial relationships, acquisitions, or other events by Dell Technologies or its competitors;
changes in how customers perceive the effectiveness of Dell Technologies’ products, services, or technologies;
actual or anticipated variations in Dell Technologies’ quarterly or annual results of operations;
changes in Dell Technologies’ financial guidance or estimates by securities analysts;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;
significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of technology companies in general and of companies in the information technology industry in particular;
actual or anticipated changes in the expectations of investors or securities analysts;
fluctuations in the trading volume of the Class C Common Stock or the size of the trading market for the Class C Common Stock held by non-affiliates;
litigation involving Dell Technologies, its industry, or both, including disputes or other developments relating to Dell Technologies’ ability to obtain patent protection for its processes and technologies and to protect its other proprietary rights;
regulatory developments in the United States and other jurisdictions in which Dell Technologies operates;
general economic and political factors, including market conditions in Dell Technologies’ industry or the industries of its customers;
major catastrophic events;
sales of large blocks of the Class C Common Stock; and
additions or departures of key employees.
In addition, if the market for stock of companies in the technology industry or the stock market in general experiences a loss of investor confidence, the trading price of the Class C Common Stock could decline for reasons unrelated to Dell Technologies’ business, results of operations, or financial condition. The market price of the Class C Common Stock also might decline in reaction to events that affect other companies in Dell Technologies’ industry, even if these events do not directly affect Dell Technologies.
In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation often has been brought against that company. If Dell Technologies’ stock price is volatile, Dell Technologies may become the target
of securities litigation, which could cause it to incur substantial costs and divert its management’s attention and resources from Dell Technologies’ business.
If securities or industry analysts publish inaccurate or unfavorable research reports or cease to publish research reports about Dell Technologies and its business or prospects, the market price or trading volume of the Class C Common Stock could decline.
The trading market for the Class C Common Stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about Dell Technologies and its business or prospects. Dell Technologies does not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of the analysts covering Dell Technologies downgrades the Class C Common Stock, expresses an adverse change of opinion regarding the Class C Common Stock or publishes inaccurate research about Dell Technologies, the market price of the Class C Common Stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of Dell Technologies or fail to publish reports on it on a regular basis, Dell Technologies could lose following in the financial markets, which could cause the market price or trading volume of the Class C Common Stock to decline.
Dell Technologies’ multi-class common stock structure with different voting rights may adversely affect the trading price of the Class C Common Stock.
Each share of Dell Technologies’ Class A Common Stock and each share of Dell Technologies’ Class B Common Stock has ten votes, while each share of Dell Technologies’ Class C Common Stock has one vote. Because of these disparate voting rights, Michael Dell and the Susan Lieberman Dell Separate Property Trust (the “MD stockholders”) and certain investment funds affiliated with Silver Lake Partners (the “SLP stockholders”) collectively held common stock representing approximately 94.8% of the total voting power of Dell Technologies’ outstanding common stock as of January 31, 2020. The limited ability of holders of the Class C Common Stock to influence matters requiring stockholder approval may adversely affect the market price of the Class C Common Stock.
In addition, in 2017, FTSE Russell and S&P Dow Jones changed their eligibility criteria to exclude new companies with multiple classes of shares of common stock from being added to certain stock indices. FTSE Russell instituted a requirement that new and, beginning in September 2022, existing constituents of its indices have greater than 5% of their voting rights in the hands of public stockholders, as calculated by FTSE Russell, whereas S&P Dow Jones announced that companies with multiple share classes, such as Dell Technologies, will not be eligible for inclusion in the S&P 500, S&P MidCap 400, and S&P SmallCap 600, which together make up the S&P Composite 1500. Other major stock indices might adopt similar requirements in the future. FTSE Russell has published an indicative list of companies affected by its policy, including its analysis of the percentage of each company’s voting rights in the hands of public stockholders. FTSE Russell’s calculation, in accordance with its analysis, of Dell Technologies’ voting rights in the hands of public stockholders, was approximately 11.5%, as disclosed in this indicative list. FTSE Russell’s determination may change at any time. Under the current criteria, at a minimum, Dell Technologies’ multi-class capital structure makes it ineligible for inclusion in the S&P Dow Jones indices, including those making up the S&P composite 1500, and, as a result, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, and other investment vehicles that track these indices will not invest in the Class C Common Stock. It is unclear what effect, if any, exclusion from any indices will have on the valuations of the affected publicly-traded companies. It is possible that such policies may depress the valuations of public companies excluded from such indices compared to valuations of companies that are included.
Future sales, or the perception of future sales, of a substantial amount of shares of the Class C Common Stock could depress the trading price of the Class C Common Stock.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of the Class C Common Stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of the Class C Common Stock, which could make it more difficult for investors to sell their shares of Class C Common Stock at a time and price that they consider appropriate. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also could impair Dell Technologies’ ability to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price Dell Technologies deems appropriate, and Dell Technologies’ ability to use Class C Common Stock as consideration for acquisitions of other businesses, investments, or other corporate purposes. As of January 31, 2020, Dell Technologies had a total of approximately 256 million shares of Class C Common Stock outstanding.
As of January 31, 2020, the 383,724,977 outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock held by the MD stockholders and the 101,685,217 outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock held by the SLP stockholders were convertible into shares of Class C Common Stock at any time on a one-to-one basis. Although the MD stockholders and the SLP stockholders generally were subject to agreements that restrict their sale or other transfer of common stock until June 27, 2021, thereafter such shares, upon any conversion into shares of Class C Common Stock, are eligible for resale in the public market pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act, subject to volume, manner of sale, and other limitations under Rule 144.
In addition, as of January 31, 2020, Dell Technologies had entered into a registration rights agreement with holders of 383,725,930 outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock (which are convertible into shares of Class C Common Stock), holders of all of the 101,685,217 outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock (which are convertible into shares of Class C Common Stock), and holders of 15,605,712 outstanding shares of Class C Common Stock, pursuant to which Dell Technologies has granted such holders and their permitted transferees shelf, demand and/or piggyback registration rights with respect to such shares. Registration of those shares under the Securities Act would permit such holders to sell the shares into the public market.
Further, as of January 31, 2020, Dell Technologies had 32,885,130 shares of Class C Common Stock that may be issued upon the exercise, vesting, or settlement of outstanding stock options, restricted stock units, or deferred stock units under Dell Technologies’ stock incentive plans, all of which would have been, upon issuance, eligible for sale in the public market, subject where applicable to expiration or waiver of contractual transfer restrictions, and an additional 54,501,375 shares of Class C Common Stock that have been authorized and reserved for issuance pursuant to potential future awards under the stock incentive plans. Dell Technologies also may issue additional stock options in the future that may be exercised for additional shares of Class C Common Stock and additional restricted stock units or deferred stock units that may vest. Dell Technologies expects that all shares of Class C Common Stock issuable with respect to such awards will be registered under one or more registration statements on Form S-8 under the Securities Act and available for sale in the open market.
Dell Technologies’ issuance of additional Class C Common Stock in connection with financings, acquisitions, investments, its stock incentive plans, or otherwise will dilute all other stockholders.
The Dell Technologies certificate of incorporation authorizes Dell Technologies to issue up to 7,900,000,000 shares of Class C Common Stock and up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock with such rights and preferences as may be determined by Dell Technologies’ board of directors. Subject to compliance with applicable law, Dell Technologies may issue shares of Class C Common Stock or securities convertible into Class C Common Stock from time to time in connection with financings, acquisitions, investments, Dell Technologies’ stock incentive plans, or otherwise. Dell Technologies may issue additional shares of Class C Common Stock from time to time at a discount to the market price of the Class C Common Stock at the time of issuance. Any issuance of Class C Common Stock could result in substantial dilution to Dell Technologies’ existing stockholders and cause the market price of the Class C Common Stock to decline.
Dell Technologies does not presently intend to pay cash dividends on the Class C Common Stock.
Dell Technologies does not presently intend to pay cash dividends on the Class C Common Stock. Accordingly, investors may have to rely on sales of the Class C Common Stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any gains on their investment in the Class C Common Stock.
Dell Technologies’ operations are conducted almost entirely through its subsidiaries and its ability to generate cash to make future dividend payments, if any, is highly dependent on the cash flows and the receipt of funds from its subsidiaries via dividends or intercompany loans. To the extent that Dell Technologies determines in the future to pay dividends on the Class C Common Stock, the terms of existing and future agreements governing Dell Technologies’ or its subsidiaries’ indebtedness, including the existing credit facilities of, and existing senior notes issued by, subsidiaries of Dell Technologies, may significantly restrict the ability of Dell Technologies’ subsidiaries to pay dividends or otherwise make distributions or transfer assets to Dell Technologies, as well as the ability of Dell Technologies to pay dividends to holders of its common stock. In addition, Delaware law imposes requirements that may restrict Dell Technologies’ ability to pay dividends to holders of its common stock.
Provisions of Dell Technologies’ organizational documents and Delaware law may make it difficult for a third party to acquire Dell Technologies even if doing so may be beneficial to Dell Technologies’ stockholders.
Certain provisions of Dell Technologies’ certificate of incorporation and bylaws may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of Dell Technologies that a stockholder may consider favorable. These provisions include:
limitations on who may call special meetings of stockholders;
advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to the board of directors and for proposals for other businesses;
the authorization of 1,000,000 shares of “blank check” preferred stock, which could be issued by the board of directors without approval of the holders of the common stock to persons friendly to Dell Technologies’ management, thereby protecting the continuity of Dell Technologies’ management, or which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of persons seeking to obtain control of Dell Technologies;
the requirement that any stockholder written consent be signed by holders of a majority of Dell Technologies’ common stock beneficially owned by the MD stockholders and holders of a majority of Dell Technologies’ common stock beneficially owned by the SLP stockholders; and
the requirement that (1) the holders of the Class A Common Stock, voting separately as a series, (2) the holders of the Class B Common Stock, voting separately as a series, and (3) the MD stockholders and SLP stockholders, in each case, so long as they own any common stock, approve amendments to certain provisions of Dell Technologies’ certificate of incorporation, including provisions related to authorized capital stock and the size and structure of the board of directors.
Further, as a Delaware corporation, Dell Technologies is subject to provisions of Delaware law that may deter a takeover attempt that its stockholders may find beneficial. These anti-takeover provisions and other provisions under Delaware law could discourage, delay, or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of Dell Technologies, including actions that its stockholders may deem advantageous, or negatively affect the trading price of its common stock, including the Class C Common Stock. These provisions also could discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for Dell Technologies’ stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause Dell Technologies to take other corporate actions that may be supported by its stockholders.
Dell Technologies is controlled by the MD stockholders, who, together with the SLP stockholders, collectively own a substantial majority of Dell Technologies’ common stock.
By reason of their ownership of Class A Common Stock possessing a majority of the aggregate votes entitled to be cast by holders of all outstanding shares of Dell Technologies’ common stock voting together as a single class, the MD stockholders have the ability to approve any matter submitted to the vote of all of the outstanding shares of the common stock voting together as a single class.
Through their control of Dell Technologies, the MD stockholders are able to control actions to be taken by Dell Technologies, including actions related to the election of directors of Dell Technologies and its subsidiaries (including VMware, Inc. and its subsidiaries), amendments to Dell Technologies’ organizational documents, and the approval of significant corporate transactions, including mergers and sales of substantially all of Dell Technologies’ assets. For example, although the Dell Technologies bylaws provide that the number of directors will be fixed by resolution of the board of directors, the stockholders of Dell Technologies may adopt, amend, or repeal the bylaws in accordance with the Delaware General Corporation Law. Through their control of Dell Technologies, the MD stockholders therefore may amend the bylaws to change the number of directors (within the limits of the certificate of incorporation), notwithstanding any determination by the board of directors regarding board size.
Further, as of January 31, 2020, the MD stockholders and the SLP stockholders collectively beneficially owned 65.4% of Dell Technologies’ outstanding common stock. This concentration of ownership together with the disparate voting rights of Dell Technologies’ common stock may delay or deter possible changes in control of Dell Technologies, which may reduce the value
of an investment in the Class C Common Stock. So long as the MD stockholders and the SLP stockholders continue to own common stock representing a significant amount of the combined voting power of Dell Technologies’ outstanding common stock, even if such amount is, individually or in the aggregate, less than 50%, such stockholders will continue to be able to strongly influence Dell Technologies’ decisions.
In addition, the MD stockholders and the SLP stockholders, respectively, have the right to nominate a number of individuals for election as Group I Directors which is equal to the percentage of the total voting power for the regular election of directors beneficially owned by the MD stockholders or by the SLP stockholders multiplied by the number of directors then on the board of directors who are not members of the audit committee, rounded up to the nearest whole number. In addition, so long as the MD stockholders or the SLP stockholders each beneficially own at least 5% of all outstanding shares of the common stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, each of the MD stockholders or the SLP stockholders, as applicable, are entitled to nominate at least one individual for election as a Group I Director.
The MD stockholders, the MSD Partners stockholders, and the SLP stockholders and their respective affiliates may have interests that conflict with the interests of other stockholders or those of Dell Technologies.
In the ordinary course of their business activities, the MD stockholders, certain investment funds affiliated with an investment firm formed by principals of the firm that manages the capital of Michael Dell and his family (the “MSD Partners stockholders”), and the SLP stockholders and their respective affiliates may engage in activities where their interests conflict with interests of other stockholders or those of Dell Technologies. The Dell Technologies certificate of incorporation provides that none of the MD stockholders, the MSD Partners stockholders, the SLP stockholders, nor any of their respective affiliates or any director or officer of the Company who is also a director, officer, employee, managing director, or other affiliate (other than Michael Dell) have any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities or similar business activities or lines of business in which Dell Technologies operates. The MD stockholders, the MSD Partners stockholders, and the SLP stockholders also may pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to Dell Technologies’ business and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to Dell Technologies. In addition, such stockholders may have an interest in pursuing acquisitions, divestitures, and other transactions that, in their judgment, could enhance the value of their investment in Dell Technologies, even though such transactions might involve risks to other stockholders.
Because Dell Technologies is a “controlled company” within the meaning of NYSE rules and, as a result, qualifies for, and relies on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements, holders of Class C Common Stock do not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.
Dell Technologies is a “controlled company” within the meaning of NYSE rules because the MD stockholders hold common stock representing more than 50% of the voting power in the election of directors. As a controlled company, Dell Technologies may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements under NYSE rules, including the requirements that:
Dell Technologies have a board that is composed of a majority of “independent directors,” as defined under NYSE rules;
Dell Technologies have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors; and
Dell Technologies have a nominating/corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors.
Although Dell Technologies currently maintains a board composed of a majority of independent directors, it currently utilizes the exemptions relating to committee composition and expects to continue to utilize those exemptions. As a result, none of the committees of the board of directors, other than the audit committee, consists entirely of independent directors. Further, Dell Technologies may decide in the future to change its board membership so that the board is not composed of a majority of independent directors. Accordingly, holders of Class C Common Stock do not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the NYSE’s corporate governance requirements.
The Dell Technologies certificate of incorporation designates a state court of the State of Delaware or the federal district court for the District of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by Dell Technologies’ stockholders, which could limit the ability of the holders of Class C Common Stock to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with Dell Technologies or with directors, officers, or the controlling stockholders of Dell Technologies.
Under the Dell Technologies certificate of incorporation, unless Dell Technologies consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the sole and exclusive forum will be, to the fullest extent permitted by law, a state court located within the State of Delaware (or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) for:
any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of Dell Technologies;
any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director or officer or stockholder of Dell Technologies to Dell Technologies or Dell Technologies’ stockholders;
any action asserting a claim against Dell Technologies or any director or officer or stockholder of Dell Technologies arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or of the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of Dell Technologies; or
any action asserting a claim against Dell Technologies or any director or officer or stockholder of Dell Technologies governed by the internal affairs doctrine.
These provisions of the Dell Technologies certificate of incorporation could limit the ability of the holders of the Class C Common Stock to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with Dell Technologies or with directors, officers, or the controlling stockholders of Dell Technologies, which may discourage such lawsuits against Dell Technologies and its directors, officers, and stockholders. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of its organizational documents inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, Dell Technologies may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect its business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The choice of forum provision is intended to apply to the fullest extent permitted by law to the above-specified types of actions and proceedings, including, to the extent permitted by the federal securities laws, to lawsuits asserting both the above-specified claims and claims under the federal securities laws. Application of the choice of forum provision may be limited in some instances by applicable law. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the choice of forum provision will not apply to actions arising under the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, subject to a limited exception for certain “covered class actions.” There is uncertainty, particularly in light of current litigation, as to whether a court would enforce the choice of forum provision with respect to claims under the Securities Act. Dell Technologies’ stockholders will not be deemed, by operation of the choice of forum provision, to have waived claims arising under the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
Dell Technologies is obligated to maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting and any failure to do so may adversely affect investor confidence in Dell Technologies and, as a result, the value of the Class C Common Stock.
Dell Technologies is required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to furnish an annual report by management on, among other matters, its assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting. The assessment must include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by Dell Technologies’ management in its report. Dell Technologies also is required to disclose significant changes made in its internal control over financial reporting. In addition, Dell Technologies’ independent registered public accounting firm is required to express an opinion each year as to the effectiveness of Dell Technologies’ internal control over financial reporting.
During the evaluation and testing process of its internal controls, if Dell Technologies identifies one or more material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting, Dell Technologies will be unable to assert that its internal control over financial reporting is effective. Dell Technologies may experience material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit Dell Technologies’ ability to issue accurate reports of its financial condition or results of operations. If Dell Technologies is unable to conclude that its internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if Dell Technologies’ independent registered public accounting firm determines that Dell Technologies has a material weakness or significant deficiencies in its internal control over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of Dell Technologies’ financial reports, the market price of the Class C Common Stock could decline and Dell Technologies could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in Dell Technologies’ internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, also could restrict future access to the capital markets by Dell Technologies or its subsidiaries.
ITEM 1B — UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2 — PROPERTIES
Our principal executive offices and global headquarters are located at One Dell Way, Round Rock, Texas.
As of January 31, 2020, as shown in the following table, we owned or leased 31.9 million square feet of office, manufacturing, and warehouse space worldwide:
Includes 2.7 million square feet of subleased or vacant space.
As of January 31, 2020, our facilities consisted of business centers, which include facilities that contain operations for sales, technical support, administrative, and support functions; manufacturing operations; and research and development centers. For additional information about our facilities, including the location of certain facilities, see “Item 1 — Business — Manufacturing and Materials.”
Because of the interrelation of the products and services offered in each of our segments, we generally do not designate our properties to any segment. With limited exceptions, each property is used at least in part by all of our segments, and we retain the flexibility to make future use of each of the properties available to each of the segments. Of our properties as of January 31, 2020, approximately 6.2 million square feet of space that house executive and administrative offices, research and development, sales and marketing functions, and data centers were used solely by our VMware segment.
We believe that our existing properties are suitable and adequate for our current needs and that we can readily meet our requirements for additional space at competitive rates by extending expiring leases or by finding alternative space.
ITEM 3 — LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The information required by this Item 3 is incorporated herein by reference to the information set forth under the caption “Legal Matters” in Note 10 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in “Part II — Item 8 — Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”
ITEM 4 — MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
ITEM 5 — MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market for Class C Common Stock
Our Class C Common Stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “DELL.” The Class C Common Stock began trading on the NYSE on a regular-way basis on December 28, 2018.
In connection with the completion of the Class V transaction described under “Part I — Item 1 — Business — Class V Transaction,” our Class V Common Stock, which had been traded on the NYSE since the completion of the EMC merger transaction on September 7, 2016, ceased trading on the NYSE prior to the opening of trading on December 28, 2018.
There is no public market for our Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock. No shares of our Class D Common Stock were outstanding as of January 31, 2020.
As of March 20, 2020, there were 4,449 holders of record of our Class C Common Stock, 10 holders of record of ou